Thursday, November 17, 2011

Gluten Free Diagnosis and Diet Change: Part Two: Learning Gluten’s Many Names

Gluten is sneaky. Really sneaky. It enjoys hiding in places you would never imagine it existed. To understand the many names of gluten, let us first take a quick lesson in gluten itself:
From Wikipedia
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related grain species, including barley and rye. It gives elasticity to dough, helping it to rise and to keep its shape, and often giving the final product a chewy texture. ... Worldwide, gluten is a source of protein, both in foods prepared directly from sources containing it, and as an additive to foods otherwise low in protein.
Below is a wonderfully detailed but long list of grains, flours, seeds, etc. that we absolutely, positively CANNOT have. I like to Google some of the listed items at various times to find out in more detail why they're on the list. Take meringue, for example: I missed it on the list the first time I read it, and only now noticed it!

Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients)
  • Abyssinian Hard (Wheat triticum durum)
  • Amp-Isostearoyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein 
  • Atta Flour
  • Barley Grass (can contain seeds)
  • Barley Hordeum vulgare
  • Barley Malt
  • Beer (most contain barley or wheat)
  • Bleached Flour 
  • Bran
  • bread Flour
  • Brewer's Yeast
  • Brown Flour
  • Bulgur (Bulgar Wheat/Nuts) 
  • Bulgur Wheat
  • Cereal Binding
  • Chilton
  • Club Wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies compactum) 
  • Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • cookie Crumbs
  • Cookie Dough
  • Cookie Dough Pieces
  • Couscous
  • Criped Rice
  • Dinkle (Spelt)
  • Disodium Wheatgermamido Peg-2 Sulfosuccinate 
  • Durum wheat (Triticum durum)
  • Edible Coatings
  • Edible Films
  • Edible Starch
  • Einkorn (Triticum monococcum)
  • Emmer (Triticum dicoccon) 
  • Enriched Bleached Flour
  • Enriched Bleached Wheat Flour
  • Enriched Flour
  • Farina 
  • Farina Graham 
  • Farro
  • Filler
  • Flour (normally this is wheat)
  • Fu (dried wheat gluten)
  • Germ 
  • Graham Flour
  • Granary Flour
  • Groats (barley, wheat) 
  • Hard Wheat
  • Heeng
  • Hing
  • Hordeum Vulgare Extract
  • Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten
  • Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein
  • Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein Pg-Propyl Silanetriol
  • Hydrolyzed Wheat Starch
  • Hydroxypropyltrimonium Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein 
  • Kamut (pasta wheat) 
  • Kecap Manis (Soy Sauce)
  • Ketjap Manis (Soy Sauce)
  • Kluski Pasta
  • Maida (Indian wheat flour)
  • Malt
  • Malted Barley Flour
  • Malted Milk
  • Malt Extract
  • Malt Syrup
  • Malt Flavoring
  • Malt Vinegar 
  • Macha Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 
  • Matza
  • Matzah
  • Matzo
  • Matzo Semolina 
  • Meringue
  • Meripro 711
  • Mir 
  • Nishasta
  • Oriental Wheat (Triticum turanicum) 
  • Orzo Pasta
  • Pasta
  • Pearl Barley
  • Persian Wheat (Triticum carthlicum) 
  • Perungayam
  • Poulard Wheat (Triticum turgidum)
  • Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum) 
  • Rice Malt (if barley or Koji are used)
  • Roux
  • Rusk
  • Rye
  • Seitan
  • Semolina
  • Semolina Triticum
  • Shot Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 
  • Small Spelt
  • Spelt (Triticum spelta)
  • Sprouted Wheat or Barley
  • Stearyldimoniumhydroxypropyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein 
  • Strong Flour
  • Suet in Packets
  • Tabbouleh 
  • Tabouli
  • Teriyaki Sauce
  • Timopheevi Wheat (Triticum timopheevii) 
  • Triticale X triticosecale
  • Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Flour Lipids
  • Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Extract
  • Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Oil
  • Udon (wheat noodles)
  • Unbleached Flour 
  • Vavilovi Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 
  • Vital Wheat Gluten
  • Wheat, Abyssinian Hard triticum durum
  • Wheat amino acids
  • Wheat Bran Extract
  • Wheat, Bulgur 
  • Wheat Durum Triticum 
  • Wheat Germ Extract
  • Wheat Germ Glycerides
  • Wheat Germ Oil
  • Wheat Germamidopropyldimonium Hydroxypropyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein
  • Wheat Grass (can contain seeds) 
  • Wheat Nuts
  • Wheat Protein
  • Wheat Triticum aestivum 
  • Wheat Triticum Monococcum
  • Wheat (Triticum Vulgare) Bran Extract
  • Whole-meal Flour
  • Wild Einkorn (Triticum boeotictim) 
  • Wild Emmer (Triticum dicoccoides)
Why is gluten so sneaky, and why is it everywhere? The answer: "gluten is a source of protein, both in foods prepared directly from sources containing it, and as an additive to foods otherwise low in protein." (Wikipedia)

The key word here is "additive." When reading the ingredients on a store product, the gluten "sources" such as flour and wheat are fairly obvious. The additives are the best hiding place for gluten, and the list below will show you why. Again, from
The following items may or may not contain gluten depending on where and how they are made, and it is sometimes necessary to check with the manufacturer to find out:
  • Artificial Color4
  • baking powder4
  • Caramel Color1, 3 - side note, I hate this one the most! It's in everything, even certain brands of vanilla ice cream!
  • Caramel Flavoring1, 3
  • Clarifying Agents4
  • Coloring4
  • Dextrins1,7
  • Dextrimaltose1,7
  • Dry Roasted Nuts4
  • Emulsifiers4
  • enzymes4
  • Fat Replacer4
  • Flavoring6
  • food Starch1, 4
  • Food Starch Modified1, 4
  • Glucose Syrup4
  • Gravy Cubes4
  • Ground Spices4
  • HPP4
  • HVP4
  • Hydrolyzed Plant Protein4
  • Hydrolyzed Protein4
  • Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein4
  • Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate4
  • Hydroxypropylated Starch4
  • Maltose4
  • Miso4
  • Mixed Tocopherols4
  • Modified Food Starch1, 4
  • Modified Starch1, 4
  • Natural Flavoring6
  • Natural Flavors6
  • Natural Juices4
  • Non-dairy Creamer4
  • Pregelatinized Starch4
  • Protein Hydrolysates4
  • Seafood Analogs4
  • Seasonings4
  • Sirimi4
  • Smoke Flavoring4
  • Soba Noodles4
  • Soy Sauce4
  • Soy Sauce Solids4
  • Sphingolipids4
  • Stabilizers4
  • Starch1, 4
  • Stock Cubes4
  • Suet4
  • Tocopherols4
  • Vegetable Broth4
  • Vegetable Gum4
  • Vegetable Protein4
  • Vegetable Starch4
  • vitamins4
  • Wheat Starch5

1) If this ingredient is made in North America it is likely to be gluten-free.
3) The problem with caramel color is it may or may not contain gluten depending on how it is manufactured. In the USA caramel color must conform with the FDA standard of identity from 21CFR CH.1. This statute says: the color additive caramel is the dark-brown liquid or solid material resulting from the carefully controlled heat treatment of the following food-grade carbohydrates: Dextrose (corn sugar), invert sugar, lactose (milk sugar), malt syrup (usually from barley malt), molasses (from cane), starch hydrolysates and fractions thereof (can include wheat), sucrose (cane or beet). Also, acids, alkalis and salts are listed as additives which may be employed to assist the caramelization process.
4) Can utilize a gluten-containing grain or by-product in the manufacturing process, or as an ingredient.
5) Most celiac organizations in the USA and Canada do not believe that wheat starch is safe for celiacs. In Europe, however, Codex Alimentarius Quality wheat starch is considered acceptable in the celiac diet by most doctors and celiac organizations. This is a higher quality of wheat starch than is generally available in the USA or Canada.
6) According to 21 C.F.R. S 101,22(a)(3): [t]he terns natural flavor or natural flavoring means the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional.
7) Dextrin is an incompletely hydrolyzed starch. It is prepared by dry heating corn, waxy maize, waxy milo, potato, arrowroot, WHEAT, rice, tapioca, or sago starches, or by dry heating the starches after: (1) Treatment with safe and suitable alkalis, acids, or pH control agents and (2) drying the acid or alkali treated starch. (1) Therefore, unless you know the source, you must avoid dextrin.
Arm yourself with these lists and even take them shopping until you have them memorized (which does not take long at all when you're always on the ingredient hunt). As the Celiac Disease Foundation points out, "The key to understanding the gluten-free diet is to become a good ingredient label reader." 

This is very true. My husband and I automatically read labels on everything we pick up in the store--it becomes habit, and you make some interesting discoveries. For instance, did you know that a regular Klondike Bar contains caramel coloring, but the Mint Chocolate Chip Klondike Bar doesn't? That was music to my eyes when I made the discovery! Once you know what's safe and what isn't, not only does shopping become easier, but so does living gluten-free. 
    And always remember when the uncertainty of ingredients is before you: WHEN IN DOUBT, GO WITHOUT! 

    Check back for Part 3: The Easy Comprehensive List of No-No's. This will be a great list to print off and give to family, friends, or anyone else who doesn't want to poison you with their cooking, and a great reference for yourself as well. 

    Happy Ingredient Reading!

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